Lager? Porter? IPA? Pilsner? Bock? Amber Double Wild Sour Tripel Fermented Cognac Ale?
For centuries people have been experimenting with different ingredients and brewing methods, and many of those ancient (and recent) discoveries and traditions live on to this day. Add to this long tradition the simple human fact that everyone has different tastes, and different cultures prioritize different tastes, and have evolved different beer-drinking traditions… and you get the enormous proliferation of different types and styles of beer.
We’ve put together a mixture of a “beginner’s guide” and a “who’s who” of different types of beer. This will help you get familiar with the basics, without needing to get a PhD!
So we encourage you to – as always – read on, take some notes, and then sally forth and experiment!
Granted, you may not be able to find all of these at the local liquor store (and definitely not at your local bar), but you can definitely find these to buy online!
The 2 Basic Types of Beer – Lager and Ale
If you really want to get to know the different types of beer, you have to start by getting familiar with the 2 “basic” types of beer – lager and ale. They are the most generic, high level categories, and also include the most popular beers in the world that you are likely to find everywhere.
This doesn’t mean these are necessarily the best types of beer around – you may have your own idea about what constitutes the best – but they are without a doubt the most popular.
One thing to remember: the basic difference between lagers and ales comes down to the type of yeast used during the fermentation process.
All the various differences that eventually come to define the two types of beer stem from the different types of yeast used to make each type of beer.
Lager yeast was first identified scientifically in 1904 and named Saccharomyces Pastorianus. Today, you will sometimes hear it referred to simply as S. Pastorianus. 
The biggest difference between lager yeast and ale yeast is that lager yeast is most comfortable in cold temperatures.
Beyond the science, most of the beers that have come to be associated with specific countries are lagers, including Sapporo, Heineken, Budweiser and Tsing Tao, just to name a few. They are light, easy to drink, and appeal to a wider base of the population.
Where S. Pastorianus yeast is most effective at cold temperatures, ale yeast, known as Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, is most comfortable doing its thing in warm temperatures.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been known to mankind for thousands of years.
S. Pastorianus only came to light around 500 years ago. 
Hops are typically used to produce types of ale as they do a better job preserving the brew.
Next to lager, ale is the most popular type of beer in the world.
The hops also produce a bitter taste that is used as a counterpoint to the sweet flavored malts used in the brewing process.
Now let’s take a closer look at lagers and ales and shine a spotlight on some of the most popular beers in each type.
Related: What is the Best Widely Available Beer?
3 Bottom Fermented Beers (Lagers)
As we discussed above, the difference between top fermented and bottom fermented beer types has to do with the type of yeast used and its preference either for cold temperatures or warm temperatures.
Lagers are produced using the Saccharomyces Pastorianus yeast, which is a cold, bottom-dwelling creature.
Below are some of the most popular forms of bottom-fermented beer, i.e., lagers.
1. Pale Lager
Pale lager is the most popular type of beer in the world by sales with several of the top 10 global brands being pale lagers.
The pale lager can trace its origins to the mid-19th century when German brewers first applied certain pale ale brewing techniques to lagering methods of the day.
Today pale lagers are often referred to as “pilsners” though they are actually different kinds of beer and pale lagers tend to be dryer and have a more pronounced hoppy aroma than pilsners. 
As mentioned, pilsner beer and pale lager are often mistaken for one another, likely because they arose at nearly the same time in Central Europe.
Pilsner originated in the city of Pilsen, which is located today in the Czech Republic. Pilsners differ from pale lagers though in that they tend to be more highly carbonated and have a fuller, hoppier aroma to them.
Pilsners tend to be a bit high maintenance and spoil easier than some other types of beer. They really need to be fresh in order to show off their attributes too.
Tsingtao is the most popular pilsner in the world today though not one the ancient brewers of Central Europe would likely take much of a shine to.
3. Dark Lager
Dark lager is often mistaken for stout or porter, and from a purely visual standpoint, the error is understandable.
But dark lager – sometimes called black lager – is typically lighter in body with the hops coming to the fore to produce what many consider to be a pleasant bitterness.
Today there are more dark beer types in the US than you can shake a stick at, while Köstritzer from Germany is one of the most internationally popular types of dark beer.
3 Top Fermented Beers (Ales)
Now, onto some of lagers’ top-fermented counterparts, ales…
1. Brown Ale
Brown ale can be traced back to early 1700s England. At first, the term was used to describe the various types of porters and stouts being produced at the time.
A hundred years later, Daniel Wheeler invented the drum malt roaster which led to a greater proliferation of beer styles and a greater desire to classify them to keep things straight.
Essentially any dark beer that was not brewed with the black malt of Wheelers roaster came to be called “brown.”
The popularity of brown ale has ebbed and flowed over the years. But despite the fact that there are no brown ales anywhere near the top of the list of most popular beer brands, it remains a steady draw today.
“In today’s hop-crazed and IPA-friendly environment, Brown Ales are a much overlooked style. But like many very traditional styles with historical roots in Europe, Brown Ales are beginning to be rediscovered and redefined here in the US.”
– Tom Bobak, Founder, American Craft Beer
2. Pale Ale
Pale ale has been around more than 300 years although at first it was often called “bitter ale” to distinguish it from milder ales of the time.
Pale ale didn’t really gain traction in the American market until the 1980s. But once it did, there was no stopping it and it’s still growing in popularity.
Today there are many different variations on the pale ale theme, but the American palate is attracted to those that are aromatic and possess a slightly bitter taste.
Because there are so many types of pale ale trying to determine the overall popularity of this type of beer globally is difficult. Suffice to say though that it is consumed in vast quantities all over the world.
3. India Pale Ale (IPA)
A subset of pale ale, India Pale Ale was first brewed in England some 200 years ago and quickly found favor with the powers that be of the East India Company, who began exporting it to the subcontinent. 
As a result, it wasn’t long before this bitter, hoppy-tasting brew took on the moniker “India Pale Ale.”
Today there are myriad variations on the standard IPA, and it continues to gain fans both in major markets and in the far-flung corners of the world.
Here are some of our favorite IPA Beers.
7 Other Types of Beer
And the list goes on…
1. German Bock
Bock beer goes back to the Middle Ages in Europe, specifically to what is now the Northern German town of Einbeck. It is believed the term “bock” is actually the result of a mispronunciation of the town’s name (Ein “bock”).
But whether that story is true or not the name for this particular type of bottom-fermented beer stuck and has been with us now for nearly 700 years.
Bock is typically both stronger and smoother than other lagers with intense flavors that are the result of the protracted brewing process. Bock is one of the many beer varieties often associated with special occasions and holidays.
The terms “porter” and “stout” are often used interchangeably, but the two actually have subtle differences.
The main difference is that stout is typically a stronger type of dark beer than porter. Porters tend to have a discernible roasted flavor to them and are typically higher in alcohol content than stouts as well.
Guinness Dublin Porter and Anchor Porter are 2 popular brands of porter beer.
Like many beer types on this list, stouts have been with us for centuries. They are believed to have started as more full-bodied variants of porter beer. This is one of the reasons people get these two confused a lot, as they are two of the most popular types of dark or black beer.
At first, the name “stout” was being bandied about with abandon with every type of strong(ish) beer being referred to as “stout” this or that.
Eventually, it became associated only with porters and then with a subset of porters. But even today there is some confusion over exactly where porters end and where stouts begin.
Without question the most popular stout in the world today is Guinness Stout.
“For many people, the first thing that comes to mind when they hear the word stout is a black pint of Guinness. But the world of stout is much wider than that. There are many different styles of stout and the variety can be somewhat daunting.”
– Bryce Eddings, The Spruce Eats
4. Belgian-Style Ale
Belgian ales were originally popularized as a result of the anti-German backlash in the wake of World War II. Local Belgian brewers were looking to brew an alternative to German beer styles like pilsner.
Belgian ales are typically less bitter than other pale ales and may have sweet malty overtones.
Belgian ales are also known for their rich, thick heads and spicy characteristics. They also are very often much stronger (alcohol by volume) than mass-market popular beers like lagers and pilsners.
5. Wheat Beer
Wheat beers are some of the oldest known types of beer in the world. To protect this ancient heritage, there are actually German laws stating exactly how much wheat must go into any beer calling itself “wheat beer.”
Wheat beer is typically light and enjoyed during the spring and summer months in particular. It may also exhibit fruity characteristics and is typically cloudy with a thick head that means business.
According to studies, wheat beer also has the ability to boost athletes’ health. 
6. Wild Ale
Wild ale is one of two new types of beer to arise from the American craft brewing scene since the turn of the century.
While the term is still in the process of being more precisely defined and is often used interchangeably with the term “sour” the basic description of this type of beer is one that exhibits an earthiness born of the Brettanomyces yeast strain.
This type of beer is also typically very low in acidity.
7. Sour Ale
In some cases, brewers will choose to add bacteria to Brettanomyces based brews. The result is an acidic quality that produces a decidedly sour flavor.
While all sour ales are considered wild, not all wild ales are considered sour. The two most common bacteria added to the brewing process to produce sour ales are Lactobacillus and Pediococcus.
As we mentioned, because both of these types of beer are extremely new to the scene there is still robust debate over whether they even qualify to be their own categories of beer, if they should just be lumped in with other beers or if there should only be a single category of beer for both of them, with “wild” being the most likely choice.
The term “specialty beer” is an umbrella term covering almost all types of craft beer made today that don’t fit clearly into an already established category.
It’s likely that in time market forces will be enough to whittle the number of different kinds of beers down to a level where accurate categorization can more easily take place.
But, for the time being, if it’s not clear what a particular beer is it goes in the “specialty” category of beer.
Master you sense of taste and smell of all these different types of beer in the Beer Tasting Mastery Course.
Specialty or craft beer is often flavored with ingredients traditional brew masters would find amusing at best, blasphemous at worst.
Ingredients such as ginger or hot peppers or fermentables like sweet potato or even maple syrup. One of the many things that make specialty beers so difficult to categorize is that the base beer, the point of departure, may be any type of classic beer style.
Or it may be something the brewmaster made up on the fly. Because of this, you can forget about listing the characteristics of specialty beer types. There aren’t any.
Practically each brew is a stand-alone creation. About the only characteristic they share is that they are all beer.
Where to buy beer online
Though we have done our best to give you an overview of the different types of beers, there simply isn’t enough space here to cover all the (literally) hundreds of different styles of beer currently being produced in the world. Every variation we showed you above has sub- and sub-sub variations. It means this is an artform that is still evolving, still undergoing refinement and revision.
On one hand, this is great. It’s entirely possible that the most popular style of beer in the world years from now has not even been created yet, but will spring forth from some previously unknown microbrewery in the years to come and eventually achieve global renown. (Just think of it this way – did your father drink IPAs in his youth? Probably not; they were barely known.)
So what are you waiting for? Put that mobile device to good use and track down some of these different types of beer and give them a try.
We recommend two different ways of finding the beer you like:
A) A “beer subscription” – these services mail you a huge variety of beer right to your door each month. Check out our review of the best beer subscriptions. This is the most convenient way to try a wide variety of beer and expand your palate and beer knowledge.
B) Drizly – a liquor store online! They have a huge selection. If they serve your city then you can get alcohol delivered to you within 1 hour. Otherwise, they ship your selection to you within 3-5 days. Check Drizly out!